Countermeasures: Internal Contamination
— External Contamination requires mechanical decontamination
— Internal Contamination may require medical countermeasures. Complex, individualized ongoing management is required to diagnose and treat medically significant internal contamination.
- Adams TG, Casagrande R. Modeling the Optimum Prussian Blue Treatment for Acute Radiation Syndrome Following 137Cs Ingestion. Health Phys. 2019 Jan;116(1):88-95. [PubMed Citation]
- The Medical Aspects of Radiation Incidents, 4th Edition, Revised 07/2017 (PDF - 2.46 MB) (REAC/TS/ORAU/DOE)
- Domínguez-Gadea L, Cerezo L. Decontamination of radioisotopes. Rep Pract Oncol Radiother. 2011 Jul 7;16(4):147-52. [PubMed Citation]
- Collecting and Shipping Laboratory Specimens for Radiation Emergencies (HHS/CDC)
- Prioritization of Laboratory Samples Following a Radiological Event: Considerations(PDF - 721 KB) (National Alliance for Radiation Readiness, November 27, 2012)
- This document presents a variety of suggestions, but it is not official policy of HHS or any of its agencies.
- Prioritization of specimens will need to reflect the specifics of each incident.
- Medical Management of Persons Internally Contaminated with Radionuclides in a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency, A Manual for Medical Personnel, (IAEA and partners, 2018)
- Management of Persons Contaminated with Radionuclides: Handbook (NCRP Report No. 161, Vol. I), Bethesda, MD, 2008
- Management of Persons Contaminated with Radionuclides: Scientific and Technical Bases (NCRP Report No. 161, Vol. II), Bethesda, MD, 2010.
- Early Internal and External Dose Magnitude Estimation (DOE/REAC/TS) (PDF - 661 KB)
This article addresses methods that can be used to rapidly estimate internal and external radiation dose magnitudes that can be used to help guide early medical management. Included are quick reference tables and examples of how to apply the mathematical formulas.